Using Android Debug Bridge

ADB, Android Debug Bridge, is a command-line debugging tool for Android. It can complete a variety of functions, such as tracking system logs, uploading and downloading files, and installing applications.

ADB tools can be used on Windows, Ubuntu, and macOS to debug Android.

Hardware connection

When using ADB, the hardware connection needs to follow the steps below.

adb-connection

Prepare ADB connection

  1. Use a USB-A to USB-C cable to connect the PC and Edge 2.

  2. Open the settings in the Edge 2 system -> About Tablet -> click 7 times consecutively on Build Number.

  3. Open Settings -> System -> Advanced -> Developer Options.

  4. Check the “USB debugging (USB debugging)” option (checked by default).

  5. Install the ADB drivers and commands based on operating system (Windows, Ubuntu, macOS).

    adb-developeroptions-usbdebugging

View ADB status

After Edge 2 ADB connects successfully, USB debugging connected will display in Notifications

adb-edge2-show

Connection status can be viewed through the following ADB commands:

$ adb devices
List of devices attached
IOO2TDRJNA	device

$ adb shell
mixtile_edge2:/ $
mixtile_edge2:/ $
mixtile_edge2:/ $

Install ADB

Install ADB on Windows

To debug Android on Windows, you need to install the ADB tool.

Download ADB tool

Download ADB tool

Install ADB tools

  1. Download the file and unzip it to a custom installation directory, such as C:\adb\platform-tools.

  2. Press Windows + R to open Run, enter sysdm.cpl, and press Enter. Click in order Advanced -> Environment Variables -> System Variables -> Path.

  3. Create a new C:\adb\platform-tools under Path.

Verify ADB connection status

Use the following ADB command to verify whether ADB is successfully connected.

C:\Users\user> adb devices
List of devices attached
IOO2TDRJNA      device

C:\Users\user> adb shell
mixtile_edge2:/ $
mixtile_edge2:/ $
mixtile_edge2:/ $

Install ADB on Ubuntu

To debug Android on Ubuntu, you need to install the ADB tool.

Download ADB tool

To install the ADB tool on Ubuntu, refer to the following command:

sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install android-tools-adb

Verify ADB connection status

Use the following ADB command on Ubuntu to verify whether ADB is successfully connected:

$ adb devices
List of devices attached
IOO2TDRJNA	device

$ adb shell
mixtile_edge2:/ $
mixtile_edge2:/ $
mixtile_edge2:/ $

Install ADB on macOS

To debug Android on macOS, you need to install the ADB tool.

Install the ADB tool

To install the ADB tool on macOS, refer to the following command:

brew cask install android-platform-tools

Verify ADB connection status

Use the following ADB command on macOS to verify whether ADB successfully connected:

$ adb devices
List of devices attached
IOO2TDRJNA	device

$ adb shell
mixtile_edge2:/ $
mixtile_edge2:/ $
mixtile_edge2:/ $

Common ADB commands

Managing connection

Display related equipment and serial numbers:

adb devices

If there are multiple connected devices, you need to use the serial number to distinguish:

export ANDROID_SERIAL=<SerialNumber>
adb shell ls 

Connect to specified devices under multiple devices:

adb -s SerialNumber shell

The ADB tool can be connected through the network:

# Restart ADB on the device side and listen at TCP port 5555.
adb tcpip 5555
# Now, the Type-C cable can be disconnected.
# Connect to the device, whose IP is 192.168.1.100 here.
adb connect 192.168.1.100:5555
# Disconnect the device
adb disconnect 192.168.1.100:5555

Debugging

Through the ADB tool, you can obtain the Android runtime debugging information.

Get system log via ADB logcat

adb logcat [Options] [Label]

Example

# View all logs.
adb logcat
# Show only part of the logs.
adb logcat -s WifiStateMachine StateMachine

Run command adb shell

Get detailed operation information

adb bugreport is used for bug reports, which contain a lot of useful information.

Example

db bugreport
# Save to host, then open it with text editor to view ADB
adb bugreport >bugreport.txt

Root permission

If TARGET_BUILD_VARIANT is in user debug mode, you need to run it to get root permission:

adb root

Switch ADB’s device side to root mode for commands that require root access, such as ADB remount.

Application management

Through the ADB tool, you can install and uninstall applications.

Install application

adb install [option] apllication_name.apk

Options include:

-l forward-lock
-r Reinstall the app and keep the original data
-s Install on SD card instead of internal storage

For instance:

# install facebook.apk
adb install facebook.apk
# upgrade twitter.apk
adb install -r twitter.apk

If the installation is successful, the tool will return a success prompt Success;In case of failure, there are generally the following situations:

  • INSTALL_FAILED_ALREADY_EXISTS: at this time, you need to reinstall with the -r parameter.
  • INSTALL_FAILED_SIGNATURE_ERROR: The signatures of the application are inconsistent, which may be caused by the different signatures of the release version and the debug version. If you confirm that the APK file signature is normal, you can uninstall the old application with the adb uninstall command before installing it.
  • INSTALL_FAILED_INSUFFICIENT_STORAGE: The storage space is insufficient. It is necessary to check the storage condition of the device.

Uninstall application

adb uninstall Apllication Pakage Name

For instance:

adb uninstall com.android.chrome

The application package name can be listed with the following command:

adb shell pm list packages -f

The operation result is:

package:/system/app/Bluetooth.apk=com.android.bluetooth

The front is the apk file, and the back is the corresponding package name.

ADB help

Android Debug Bridge version 1.0.31

 -a                            - directs adb to listen on all interfaces for a connection
 -d                            - directs command to the only connected USB device
                                 returns an error if more than one USB device is present.
 -e                            - directs command to the only running emulator.
                                 returns an error if more than one emulator is running.
 -s <specific device>          - directs command to the device or emulator with the given
                                 serial number or qualifier. Overrides ANDROID_SERIAL
                                 environment variable.
 -p <product name or path>     - simple product name like 'sooner', or
                                 a relative/absolute path to a product
                                 out directory like 'out/target/product/sooner'.
                                 If -p is not specified, the ANDROID_PRODUCT_OUT
                                 environment variable is used, which must
                                 be an absolute path.
 -H                            - Name of adb server host (default: localhost)
 -P                            - Port of adb server (default: 5037)
 devices [-l]                  - list all connected devices
                                 ('-l' will also list device qualifiers)
 connect <host>[:<port>]       - connect to a device via TCP/IP
                                 Port 5555 is used by default if no port number is specified.
 disconnect [<host>[:<port>]]  - disconnect from a TCP/IP device.
                                 Port 5555 is used by default if no port number is specified.
                                 Using this command with no additional arguments
                                 will disconnect from all connected TCP/IP devices.

device commands:
  adb push [-p] <local> <remote>
                               - copy file/dir to device
                                 ('-p' to display the transfer progress)
  adb pull [-p] [-a] <remote> [<local>]
                               - copy file/dir from device
                                 ('-p' to display the transfer progress)
                                 ('-a' means copy timestamp and mode)
  adb sync [ <directory> ]     - copy host->device only if changed
                                 (-l means list but don't copy)
                                 (see 'adb help all')
  adb shell                    - run remote shell interactively
  adb shell <command>          - run remote shell command
  adb emu <command>            - run emulator console command
  adb logcat [ <filter-spec> ] - View device log
  adb forward --list           - list all forward socket connections.
                                 the format is a list of lines with the following format:
                                    <serial> " " <local> " " <remote> "\n"
  adb forward <local> <remote> - forward socket connections
                                 forward specs are one of:
                                   tcp:<port>
                                   localabstract:<unix domain socket name>
                                   localreserved:<unix domain socket name>
                                   localfilesystem:<unix domain socket name>
                                   dev:<character device name>
                                   jdwp:<process pid> (remote only)
  adb forward --no-rebind <local> <remote>
                               - same as 'adb forward <local> <remote>' but fails
                                 if <local> is already forwarded
  adb forward --remove <local> - remove a specific forward socket connection
  adb forward --remove-all     - remove all forward socket connections
  adb jdwp                     - list PIDs of processes hosting a JDWP transport
  adb install [-l] [-r] [-d] [-s] [--algo <algorithm name> --key <hex-encoded key> --iv <hex-encoded iv>] <file>
                               - push this package file to the device and install it
                                 ('-l' means forward-lock the app)
                                 ('-r' means reinstall the app, keeping its data)
                                 ('-d' means allow version code downgrade)
                                 ('-s' means install on SD card instead of internal storage)
                                 ('--algo', '--key', and '--iv' mean the file is encrypted already)
  adb uninstall [-k] <package> - remove this app package from the device
                                 ('-k' means keep the data and cache directories)
  adb bugreport                - return all information from the device
                                 that should be included in a bug report.

  adb backup [-f <file>] [-apk|-noapk] [-obb|-noobb] [-shared|-noshared] [-all] [-system|-nosystem] [<packages...>]
                               - write an archive of the device's data to <file>.
                                 If no -f option is supplied then the data is written
                                 to "backup.ab" in the current directory.
                                 (-apk|-noapk enable/disable backup of the .apks themselves
                                    in the archive; the default is noapk.)
                                 (-obb|-noobb enable/disable backup of any installed apk expansion
                                    (aka .obb) files associated with each application; the default
                                    is noobb.)
                                 (-shared|-noshared enable/disable backup of the device's
                                    shared storage / SD card contents; the default is noshared.)
                                 (-all means to back up all installed applications)
                                 (-system|-nosystem toggles whether -all automatically includes
                                    system applications; the default is to include system apps)
                                 (<packages...> is the list of applications to be backed up.  If
                                    the -all or -shared flags are passed, then the package
                                    list is optional.  Applications explicitly given on the
                                    command line will be included even if -nosystem would
                                    ordinarily cause them to be omitted.)

  adb restore <file>           - restore device contents from the <file> backup archive

  adb help                     - show this help message
  adb version                  - show version num

scripting:
  adb wait-for-device          - block until device is online
  adb start-server             - ensure that there is a server running
  adb kill-server              - kill the server if it is running
  adb get-state                - prints: offline | bootloader | device
  adb get-serialno             - prints: <serial-number>
  adb get-devpath              - prints: <device-path>
  adb status-window            - continuously print device status for a specified device
  adb remount                  - remounts the /system partition on the device read-write
  adb reboot [bootloader|recovery] - reboots the device, optionally into the bootloader or recovery program
  adb reboot-bootloader        - reboots the device into the bootloader
  adb root                     - restarts the adbd daemon with root permissions
  adb usb                      - restarts the adbd daemon listening on USB
  adb tcpip <port>             - restarts the adbd daemon listening on TCP on the specified port
networking:
  adb ppp <tty> [parameters]   - Run PPP over USB.
 Note: you should not automatically start a PPP connection.
 <tty> refers to the tty for PPP stream. Eg. dev:/dev/omap_csmi_tty1
 [parameters] - Eg. defaultroute debug dump local notty usepeerdns

adb sync notes: adb sync [ <directory> ]
  <localdir> can be interpreted in several ways:

  - If <directory> is not specified, both /system and /data partitions will be updated.

  - If it is "system" or "data", only the corresponding partition
    is updated.

environmental variables:
  ADB_TRACE                    - Print debug information. A comma separated list of the following values
                                 1 or all, adb, sockets, packets, rwx, usb, sync, sysdeps, transport, jdwp
  ANDROID_SERIAL               - The serial number to connect to. -s takes priority over this if given.
  ANDROID_LOG_TAGS             - When used with the logcat option, only these debug tags are printed.